A quadruplet 3-D laser scribed graphene/MoS2, functionalised N2-doped graphene quantum dots and lignin-based Ag-nanoparticles for biosensing

Vasudevan Mugashini, Perumal Veeradasan, Bothi Raja Pandian, Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad Nasir, Lee Hooi-Ling, CB Gopinath Subash, Mark Ovinis, Saravanan Karuppanan, Ang Phaik Ching, Arumugam Natarajan, Suresh Kumar Raju

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Troponin I is a protein released into the human blood circulation and a commonly used biomarker due to its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing myocardial injury. When heart injury occurs, elevated troponin Troponin I levels are released into the bloodstream. The biomarker is a strong and reliable indicator of myocardial injury in a person, with immediate treatment required. For electrochemical sensing of Troponin I, a quadruplet 3D laserscribed graphene/molybdenum disulphide functionalised N2-doped graphene quantum dots hybrid with ligninbased Ag-nanoparticles (3D LSG/MoS2/N-GQDs/L-Ag NPs) was fabricated using a hydrothermal process as an enhanced quadruplet substrate. Hybrid MoS2 nanoflower (H3 NF) and nanosphere (H3 NS) were formed independently by varying MoS2 precursors and were grown on 3D LSG uniformly without severe stacking and restacking issues, and characterized by morphological, physical, and structural analyses with the N-GQDs and AgNPs evenly distributed on 3D LSG/MoS2 surface by covalent bonding. The selective capture of and specific interaction with Troponin I by the biotinylated aptamer probe on the bio-electrode, resulted in an increment in the charge transfer resistance. The limit of detection, based on impedance spectroscopy, is 100 aM for both H3NF and H3 NS hybrids, with the H3 NF hybrid biosensor having better analytical performance in terms of linearity, selectivity, repeatability, and stability.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number126620
    JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 7 Sept 2023


    The authors acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for supporting the research with Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) ( FRGS/1/2022/TK09/UTP/02/3 ) and Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for the opportunity to carry out the research in Nanotechnology Research Laboratory and Dye Solar Cell Laboratory. The authors acknowledge the fund from Researchers Supporting Project Number ( RSP2023R143 ), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .

    FundersFunder number
    King Saud University
    Ministry of Higher Education, MalaysiaFRGS/1/2022/TK09/UTP/02/3
    Universiti Teknologi PetronasRSP2023R143


      • Biopolymer
      • Molybdenum
      • Nanoparticles
      • Nanosensor
      • Nitrogen-graphene


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