A Survey on LoRaWAN Technology: Recent Trends, Opportunities, Simulation Tools and Future Directions

Mukarram A.M. Almuhaya*, Waheb A. Jabbar*, Noorazliza Sulaiman, Suliman Abdulmalek

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    106 Citations (SciVal)


    Low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies play a pivotal role in IoT applica-tions, owing to their capability to meet the key IoT requirements (e.g., long range, low cost, small data volumes, massive device number, and low energy consumption). Between all obtainable LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) technology has attracted much interest from both industry and academia due to networking autonomous architecture and an open standard specification. This paper presents a comparative review of five selected driving LPWAN technologies, including NB-IoT, SigFox, Telensa, Ingenu (RPMA), and LoRa/LoRaWAN. The comparison shows that LoRa/LoRaWAN and SigFox surpass other technologies in terms of device lifetime, network capacity, adaptive data rate, and cost. In contrast, NB-IoT technology excels in latency and quality of service. Furthermore, we present a technical overview of LoRa/LoRaWAN technology by considering its main features, opportunities, and open issues. We also compare the most important simulation tools for investigating and analyzing LoRa/LoRaWAN network performance that has been developed recently. Then, we introduce a comparative evaluation of LoRa simulators to highlight their features. Furthermore, we classify the recent efforts to improve LoRa/LoRaWAN performance in terms of energy consumption, pure data extraction rate, network scalability, network coverage, quality of service, and security. Finally, although we focus more on LoRa/LoRaWAN issues and solutions, we introduce guidance and directions for future research on LPWAN technologies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number164
    JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 1 Jan 2022


    Funding: This research work was funded by Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) under the research grant PDU203229 and the post-graduate research scheme PGRS200340.

    FundersFunder number
    Universiti Malaysia PahangPGRS200340, PDU203229


      • IoT
      • LPWAN
      • LoRa
      • LoRa simulation tools
      • LoRaWAN


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