Development of LoRaWAN-based IoT system for water quality monitoring in rural areas

Waheb A. Jabbar* (Corresponding / Lead Author), Tan Mei Ting, M. Fikri I. Hamidun, Ajwad H. Che Kamarudin, Wenyan Wu, Jamil Sultan, Abdulrahman Al-Sewari, Mohammed A.H. Ali

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1 Citation (SciVal)


    This article delineates the design and deployment of an innovative real-time water quality monitoring system tailored for rural regions, focusing on monitoring the water resource quality parameters. We propose a solar-powered, waterproof, portable, and Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled solution that leverages Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology. Central to this system is a sophisticated LoRa node outfitted with an array of sensors for capturing key water parameters, such as pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity and temperature. A conjunction of an Arduino microcontroller-based board and a LoRa shield facilitates real-time data capture and transmission to a LoRaWAN gateway. The acquired data is transmitted to The Things Network server, which is seamlessly integrated with a ThingSpeak web-based IoT server and ThingView mobile applications. We incorporate a solar cell with a solar shield to ensure sustainable energy provision for powering the entire system through a rechargeable battery. This allows users to access vital water quality information online simultaneously and continuously in real-time. As a testament to its robustness, the system was empirically tested at Gambang Lake to demonstrate its effectiveness, functionality, buoyancy, and waterproof capabilities. We further validated the results by comparing them with laboratory sample analysis findings. Experimental evaluations confirmed the system's reliability, as evidenced by the strong agreement between the water conditions measured using our solution and those obtained from laboratory instruments. Moreover, our system efficiently and remotely updated data across multiple IoT platforms using the LoRa radio interface over the LoRaWAN gateway.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number122862
    JournalExpert Systems with Applications
    Issue number15
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 7 Dec 2023


    • LoRa
    • LoRaWAN
    • Rural Areas
    • TTN
    • ThingSpeak
    • Water Quality Monitoring


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