Exploring the Limitations of Business Process Maturity Models: A Systematic Literature Review

Ensi Smajli* (Corresponding / Lead Author), Gerald Feldman, Sharon Cox

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Business Process Maturity Models (BPMM) offer organisations a structured approach to define business process improvement opportunities resulting in operational efficiency. However, there is criticism in the literature on their usefulness in improving process maturity and, as such, the overall effect on operational efficiency. Hence, a systematic literature review was conducted to understand the limitations of BPMMs associated with their usefulness. A total of 1290 studies were retrieved from Scopus and Web of Science, and after a relevancy scan, 124 studies were selected. Upon refining the selection criteria, the final sample resulted in 47 studies about BPMMs that were thematically analysed. The findings emphasise several notable constraints associated with BPMMs, primarily concerning their methodological underpinnings, restricted functional scope and the scarcity of empirical validation regarding their economic implications. Despite significant efforts to address methodological concerns, as reflected by the emergence of Design Science Research (DSR), progress remains insufficient in addressing BPMMs' limited functionalities for the prescriptive purpose of use. The paper provides an in-depth understanding of these limitations and the extent to which these problem areas have been addressed, presenting a foundation for future research in improving the usefulness of BPMMs.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalInformation Systems Management
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 20 Mar 2024


    • business process management
    • process maturity
    • business process maturity models
    • Systematic literature review
    • Business process


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