Exploring the roles of physical effort and visual salience within the proximity effect

Daniel Knowles*, Kyle Brown, Silvio Aldrovandi

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (SciVal)
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104489
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 1 Feb 2020


    Daniel Knowles (DK) is a PhD student under the supervision of Dr Kyle Brown (KB) and Dr Silvio Aldrovandi (SA). KB and SA are Senior Lecturers of Applied Psychology at Birmingham City University. DK planned the studies, with revisions and feedback provided by KB and SA. The studies was carried out by DK, with the manuscript drafted by DK under the supervision and feedback of KB and SA. Data analysis was carried out by DK. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. This study was ethically approved by the Birmingham City University Ethics Committee. Informed consent was attained from participants prior to each trial, with all data being kept anonymous and stored securely. The authors declare they have no competing interests. The first author (DK) is funded as a PhD student at Birmingham City University. The Doctoral Research College had no part in designing the study, collecting or analysing data, or preparing the manuscript. This research did not receive any specific external grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sector.

    FundersFunder number
    City, University of London
    Birmingham City University


      • Choice architecture
      • Effort
      • Food consumption
      • Nudging
      • Proximity
      • Salience


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