Immunological, haematological, and clinical attributes of rural and urban malaria: a case–control study in Ghana

Desmond Omane Acheampong, Patrick Adu, Paulina Ampomah, Kwabena Obeng Duedu, Enoch Aninagyei*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (SciVal)

    Abstract

    To compare clinical presentations, haematological and immunological parameters in urban and rural malaria patients. Clinically suspected malaria patients, resident in either rural or urban communities, were selected from seven health facilities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. For each suspected malaria patient, parasites were detected microscopically and quantified subsequently. In each study site, an equal number of cases and age-matched controls were selected. In both cases and controls, clinical presentations, nutritional status, haematological, and immunological parameters were profiled. A total of 149 malaria patients and 149 nonmalaria controls were selected. Compared to rural dwellers with malaria, parasitaemia was significantly higher in both males and females and in the various age groups in urban dwellers with malaria. Additionally, mean lymphocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell haemoglobin, platelets, and mean platelet volume levels were significantly lower in urban dwellers with malaria. However, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12 levels in urban dwellers with malaria were significantly higher, while IL-10, CD4(+), CD3(+), CD8(+) T-cells levels and CD4(+)/ CD3(+) ratio were significantly lower in urban dwellers with malaria. Furthermore, chills, diarrhoea, fever, and pallor were significantly associated with urban dwellers with malaria. This study concluded that urban dwellers are more prone to severe malaria while rural dwellers tend to have more measured immune response against malaria infection, and therefore experienced better controlled inflammatory processes associated with mild form of the disease.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)806-816
    Number of pages11
    JournalJ Parasit Dis
    Volume45
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - Sept 2021

    Keywords

    • Comparative haematological profiling in malaria
    • Ghana
    • Malaria immunology
    • Rural and urban malaria
    • T-cell profiling in malaria

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