Lignin derived nanoparticle intercalation on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for electrochemical sensing of cardiac biomarker

Mugashini Vasudevan, Sathaniswarman Remesh, Veeradasan Perumal*, Pandian Bothi Raja, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Subash C.B. Gopinath, Hooi Ling Lee, Saravanan Karuppanan, Mark Ovinis, Natarajan Arumugam, Raju Suresh Kumar

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Lignin-scribed graphene (LSG) conjugated with nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) and lignin derived silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed through a hydrothermal process for the electrochemical sensing of Troponin I, a cardiac biomarker for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). A nanocomposite with optimal conduction mechanism was developed by varying the N-GQDs doped amount intercalated on the surface of LSG. The nanocomposite was characterised by morphological, physical, and structural examinations. The Ag NPs and N-GQDs were found uniformly distributed on the LSG surface, with selective capture of the biotinylated aptamer probe on the bio-electrode indicative of the specific interaction with Troponin I, resulting in an increment in the charge transfer resistance following hybridisation analysis. The detection limit, as determined through impedance spectroscopy, was 1 fM or 30 fg/mL, with high levels of linearity, selectivity, repeatability, and stability of the sensor. This nanocomposite opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number109405
    JournalMicrochemical Journal
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 23 Sept 2023


    The authors acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for supporting the research with Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (FRGS/1/2022/TK09/UTP/02/3) and Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for the opportunity to carry out the research in Nanotechnology Research Laboratory and Dye Solar Cell Laboratory. The authors acknowledge the fund from Researchers Supporting Project Number (RSP2023R143), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    FundersFunder number
    King Saud University
    Ministry of Higher Education, MalaysiaFRGS/1/2022/TK09/UTP/02/3
    Universiti Teknologi PetronasRSP2023R143


      • lignin-derived graphene
      • nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots
      • silver nanoparticles
      • troponin I
      • biosensor


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