Smart, Sustainable, Green Cities: A State-of-the-Art Review

Michael Grace, Vahid Javidroozi* (Corresponding / Lead Author), Claudia Carter, Hanifa Shah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


This state-of-the-art review paper aims to provide an overview of the current research on three categories of liveable cities, Smart, Sustainable, and Green (SSG). It explores how the discussions about these three categories have been brought together in the literature and identifies an integrated approach to developing more liveable cities of the future. The paper begins by introducing the research topic and methodology, setting out a broad definition for SSG cities as a starting point. Then, the review focuses on recent publications and research trends, with an emphasis on the most significant contributions to the convergence of the SSG categories. Special attention is paid to identifying gaps in current knowledge and suggesting areas for future research. Reviewing recent resources based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria in depth, using 11 relevant themes within the three aforementioned categories, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the current state of research in developing more liveable cities. Moreover, a summary of the main findings, providing a holistic view of the liveable future cities and implications for further research, policy, and practice offers a helpful resource for scholars, practitioners, policymakers, city authorities, consultants, and solution providers for SSG cities.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5353
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 17 Mar 2023


  • smart cities
  • sustainable cities
  • green cities
  • sustainability
  • city systems integration
  • sustainable development
  • livability
  • well-being
  • net-zero
  • environment


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