The applicability of GATT article XX(a) to animal welfare

Iyan Offor, Jan Walter

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This literature review synthesises recent academic commentary analysing whether there is evidence that trade restrictions aimed at protecting animal welfare can be justified under Article XX(a) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 and thus whether such measures can be complimentary to and comply with the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) free trade agenda. The literature review places particular emphasis on the EC - Seal Products case and the way the case has evolved interpretations of GATT Article XX(a).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)10-20
    Number of pages11
    JournalThe UK Journal of Animal Law
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 1 Jul 2017


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