The National Innovation System of India: historical perspective and key characteristics

Danilo Spinola, Rituparna Kaushik

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    This chapter presents a brief review of the evolution of the Indian National Innovation System (NIS), from its historical formation to its current challenges from a systemic perspective. Since its independence in 1947, India went through a fast economic development, moving from a rural agricultural-based economy to an industrialised urban economy with a robust high-tech service sector. Indian NIS characteristics qualitatively changed from a fully public-oriented, closed, and inward-oriented system to a mixed open system in which the public sector plays a central role alongside large firms/conglomerates in crucial sectors, resulting in a relatively developed but still heterogeneous and imbalanced innovation structure.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIndia at 75, Thoughts and Reflections
    PublisherBite Sized books
    Number of pages7
    ISBN (Print)9781739726188
    Publication statusPublished (VoR) - 1 Mar 2023


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